ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FOR CHURCHES

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KEY: Exx experience; Genx general; Orgx organisation; Prax practical; Thex theological or theoretical; TWx Third World. (NB the 'x' helps in category word search)! **essential; *important.

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BLAKEBROUGH E ed

Darton Longman & Todd 1995

Prax

Exx

CHURCH FOR THE CITY

CHAMBERS R

Longman 1983

TWx

RURAL DEVELOPMENT: PUTTING THE LAST FIRST

Chambers describes how those dealing with rural development are often trapped in urban areas by their lifestyle, and how even when visiting rural areas they go in the dry season, keep near to tarmac roads etc and fail to see the true extent of poverty. Even field workers only see the relatively small percentage of people using their projects, and underestimate the real poverty. This also happens in urban areas and in Britain. Do middle class professionals really know the urban areas they supposedly serve, and do churches in contact with a relatively small percentage of people in their area know the full extent of needs and poverty?

CHESTER Timothy

IVP 1993

Thex**

AWAKENING TO A WORLD OF NEED

Tells the story of evangelical social concern from the 1960s to the early 1990s - a story of compassion responding to need, of new organisations such as Tear Fund and World Vision, and of theology catching up with action. It explores the influence of key western and non-western thinkers such as John Stott and Rene Padilla, of political activists such as Jim Wallis, and of major conferences such as Lausanne, as well as grassroots initiatives. It also tackles the tensions that have arisen as evangelicals have thought about the relationship between proclamation and service, and about the biblical basis of social ethics.

COLERIDGE Peter

Oxfam 1993

Genx *

DISABILITY, LIBERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The situation of disabled people provides a microcosm of the whole development debate and process. Disabled people are oppressed and marginalised in every country of the world. They are oppressed by social attitudes which stem from fear and prejudice. By examining those prejudices and studying examples where they have been overcome, we gain an insight into the process of liberation and empowerment that lie at the heart of any development effort. The book examines the social, political and development issues surrounding disability... and makes the case for regarding disabled people as an integral part of the development process, capable of running their own lives and acting as full partners, rather than as passive recipients of rehabilitation aid.

DEAKIN & EDWARDS

Routledge 1993

Genx *

THE ENTERPRISE CULTURE AND THE INNER CITY

The book traces the changes in inner city policies from the reports of the Community Development Programme which first saw the declining economy as the main reason behind inner city deprivation, and through the enterprise culture of the 1980s, and shows that the private sector has been unable to alleviate the social problems, and indeed tends to blame the poor for being unenterprising. It is illustrated with case studies of London Docklands, Birmingham Heartlands, and Trafford Park.

Not many relocated jobs go to the local unemployed, who are not given the necessary training, while those with other deprivations do not benefit at all. Furthermore jobs do not have to be in inner cities to benefit them, and indeed the residents would prefer industry to be elsewhere like their suburban counterparts. Business-in-the-Community has pursued the idea of urban development trusts, but US experience has shown that companies renege on their promises when the economy slumps. Those set up by companies in Britain to benefit local communities are small and administered by the company with little community involvement. This book tends to emphasise the failures of policy, but then the flagship schemes of Canary Wharf and Stockbridge Village Trust were only rescued by massive inputs of public money.

FREIRE P

Penguin 1972

Genx

PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED

This is the classic book about Freire's methodology of conscientization through literary campaigns which made people aware of injustice and their rights, and how to act together to achieve them.

The process worked so well among the peasants of Brazil, and was considered such a threat to the old order that Freire was jailed and then exiled after the military coup in 1964.

Conscientization is one of the principles involved in the enabling of grass roots community development, and is applicable in British inner cities as well as developing countries. For an English counterpart see Education for Justice by Brian Wren.

GUTIERREZ G

SCM 1974

Genx

A THEOLOGY OF LIBERATION

Gutierrez is representative of liberation theology, and this is a broad survey.

Liberation theology stemmed from the failure of development. Support for development was intense in Latin America in the 50s, producing high expectations. But since the supporters of development did not attack the roots of the evil, they failed and instead caused confusion and frustration. At Medellin in 1968 the Latin American RC bishops approved a pastoral approach which encourages and favours the efforts of the people to create and develop their own grass roots organisations for the redress and consolidation of their rights and the search for true justice.

Liberation theology used Marxist social analysis and emphasised a political view of salvation taking the Exodus as a paradigm. However it raised vital questions about how we do theology and how western society was organised to benefit or oppress people. Traditional systematic theology is not neutral but culturally European and had failed to cope with questions of poverty, social injustice, institutional violence and economic dependence.

HAMDI & GOETHERT

ITP 1988

Prax*

MAKING MICROPLANS: A COMMUNITY BASED PROCESS IN PROGRAMMING AND DEVELOPMENT

This is a practical guide for community groups and their leaders, and hence for all students of planning and development, the example taken being in the complex process of settlement upgrading characterised by innumerable groups of people with competing vested interests.

Only the broadest intentions (or policies) are brought to the site from the top, and subsequently crafted into workable programmes from the bottom. Microplanning is a process which seeks to build linkages between local and central needs and so to reach consensus among participants on priorities, as well as appropriate courses of action and government intervention.

LINTHICUM Robert

Marc 1991

Thex**

EMPOWERING THE POOR: COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AMONG THE CITY'S 'RAG, TAG AND BOBTAIL'

MABBOTT J

Policy Studies Summer 1993

Vol.14 no.2 pp27-35

Exx

CITY CHALLENGE: THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

In City Challenge the local community was intended to play a larger role than in previous inner city initiatives, and it offered the opportunity to tackle problems in a holistic way.

This was evaluated by action research in 1992. City Challenge can have a positive influence on urban community development but is not in itself sufficient to sustain it. Where partnership bodies and community forums were established early there was the opportunity but not a guarantee of influence, but even there the private sector, local businesses, overshadowed the relatively weak NGOs and CBOs, particularly financially.

SeeCity Challenge: Involving Local Communities by Macfarlane & Mabbott NCVO 1993

McCLUNG Floyd

Kingsway 1990

Thex**

SPIRITS OF THE CITY

Floyd McClung shows why we can face the city without fear - and with a sense of hope. When we see the city as a grouping of cultures and communities we discover its more human face. And when we understand God's purposes for urban life we have the chance to change the way we feel about the city - and the way we live.

We must recognise evil in the systems, institutions and lives of people in the city, and how that evil spirit manifests itself.

McClung shows how to discern this and emphasises the importance of researching a city's spiritual history, and what other Christians are doing there, as well as researching its social, political and environmental background. Nehemiah is seen as an example of such an integrated approach to development.

MORISY Ann

Mowbrays 1997

Thex**

BEYOND THE GOOD SAMARITAN: COMMUNITY MINISTRY AND MISSION

Community ministry unites evangelism and social action and dismisses the charge of Christians using the latter as a way into the former. It stresses dialogue and Christians and others working and learning together, volunteers and clients learning together, so that Christians can naturally share the part God plays in it for them, and so that non-Christians are open to listen. Disciples together could be its subtitle, but it does not consider the enabling which sets a project free into the community, nor sustainability and replication.

NICHOLS Paul

Oxfam 1991

Prax

SOCIAL SURVEY METHODS - A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPMENT WORKERS

This book is intended to be of use to those without a formal training in statistics...

Well organised and cost effective surveys provide vital information for planning development projects. This book uses straightforward language to guide the reader through the choice of an appropriate affordable research method, the implementation of the research, and the communication of the findings to key decision makers, community organisations and other interested parties. Formal and non-formal survey methods are dealt with in detail, and there is helpful advice on statistical analysis of results, design of survey forms, and interview methods.

It also contains a glossary of terms, and is a companion volume to Choosing Research Methods by Pratt & Loizos.

PERKINS John M

Baker Books 1993

Thex

BEYOND CHARITY: THE CALL TO CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

PRICE J

Prophecy Today

Vol.7 no.4 1991 pp26-7

Exx

URBAN ENCOUNTERS OF THE RIGHT KIND

This article tells some of the story of PECAN, Peckham Evangelical Churches Action Network. It was founded in 1989 and is an example of several churches in an area combining for social action. PECAN serves an estate with 30% unemployment, 90% single parent families, an undercurrent of racial tension, and following the riots of 1986 no shops. Since only half the households had washing machines PECAN decided to set up a launderette which would also serve as a meeting place and begin to foster community spirit. PECAN also runs an Employment Preparation Course, and rather than wait for people to come to it, makes the course known by door to door visiting. In 1992 65% of those who took the one month course found jobs or went on to further training.

Its replicability has been demonstrated by PECAN helping to establish a similar project with churches in Hackney which is now independent.

SCHAEFER Edith

Norfolk Press 1971

Thex**

HIDDEN ART

When considering the idea of working with and enabling people in community development, rather than working for them and imposing outside ideas, this book shows how everyone has creative ability, and can make a place their own. It also shows that art in its widest sense is an integral part of everyday life, not an optional extra or luxury. Many of the creative but simple things she suggests are free.

SCHLUTER & LEE

Hodder & Stoughton 1993

Thex*

THE R FACTOR

The importance of relationships

SHELTER

88 Old Street

London EC1V 9HU

0171 253 0202

Orgx

Shelter is the National Campaign for Homeless People. Through a network of Housing Aid Centres it gives free advice and assistance to those who are homeless, at risk of homelessness or in bad housing. It funds practical projects, and researches and informs politicians and the public about the need for affordable decent homes. It also assists churches and other local groups in their commitment to tackling housing issues.

SMITH Jerry

Community Development Foundation 1992

Prax

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND TENANT ACTION

Argues for a community development approach to involving tenants in housing policy provision and management. Includes sections on workers, decentralisation, housing associations, tenant co-operatives, priority estates and estate management boards ,training, funding, information and organisational development. Beginning with a critical look at past experience, the paper concludes with positive and practical proposals for tenant involvement, and a UK/EU contacts section.

STEVENS R W

Habitat for Humanity, ITDG of North America 1982

Exx

COMMUNITY SELF-HELP HOUSING MANUAL: PARTNERSHIP FOR ACTION

Demonstrates how to organise, finance and construct self-help housing on the actual experience of Habitat for Humanity. Very practical but the technical and legal information relates only to the USA.. It also covers issues such as identifying a target area, fundraising, motivation, and stresses the patience and hard work required.

TAYLOR Marilyn

Community Development Foundation & National Coalition of Neighbourhoods

1992

Genx**

SIGNPOSTS TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

The first in a series of papers exploring key issues in community development this introduction covers its history, methods and values.

It asks What is community development? Who does it? Who uses it? Who benefits? What is its impact on social policy? What challenges does community development face in the 1990s?

The privatisation of welfare services has provided new opportunities for community organisations to become service providers and/or to empower the consumer. In 1983 59% of community workers were employed by voluntary agencies; the number has now risen and many are employed by churches.

The book ends with a select bibliography and list of essential contacts in the UK and Europe.

TURNER John F C

Marion Boyars 1976

Prax

HOUSING BY PEOPLE - TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS

The classic book on self-help housing based on the author's experience in Peru. His Three Laws of Housing summarising the psychological social and economic bases of his argument are of universal application:

1: When dwellers control the major decisions and are free to make their own contribution to the design, construction or management of their housing, both the process and the environment produced stimulate individual and social well-being. When people have no control over, nor responsibility for key decisions in the housing process, dwelling environments may instead become a barrier to personal fulfilment and a burden on the economy.

2: The important thing about housing is not what it is, but what it does in people's lives: dweller satisfaction is not necessarily related to the imposition of material building standards.

3: Deficiencies and imperfections in your housing are infinitely more tolerable if they are your responsibility than if they are somebody else's.

TWELVETREES Alan

Avebury 1989

Exx

ORGANISING FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENT

A classic study of Community Development Corporations in the USA, and their attempts to revitalise low income areas. The author concludes that CDCs are best understood as paradoxical organisations with conflicting goals, and that Citizen Power Organisations are also necessary. Highly relevant for those interested in community economic development in the UK.

VANIER J

Darton Longman & Todd 1989

Exx *

COMMUNITY AND GROWTH

Vanier was founder of L'Arche community for mentally handicapped people, or people with learning difficulties as they are now called. It is a lovely book with many insights about community - for instance the need for intermediate communities "where people can stay and find a certain interior freedom before they make their decision... For a community to play this intermediate role it must have a basis of people who are really rooted there."

"Celebration is nourishment and resource. It renders present the goals of the community, and so brings hope and a new strength to take up everyday life with more love."

Celebration is something which protestant communities tend to lack compared to Catholic ones.

VERHAGEN K

CEBEMO/Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands 1987

TWx *

SELF-HELP PROMOTION - A CHALLENGE TO THE NGO COMMUNITY

This is a report on three NGOs in Brazil, Indonesia and Thailand co-ordinated by CEBEMO on the promotion of economic activities in rural areas. However it is also a challenge to any organisation involved in any kind of enabling community development anywhere, as the principles are applicable wherever financial resources dwindle. Verhagen speaks of Self Help Promotion Institutions (which could be churches) establishing Self Help Organisations which should therefore grow into independence.

Two key elements are "building upon what the poor have; rather than what they lack" and "facilitating and promoting their organisation." Verhagen points out how many resources the so-called "have nots" have.

He also points out some risks:-

"Once you have got the money from the donor agency you have become the prisoner of your own plan."

"SHOs develop their own momentum. The direction they will take cannot be predicted....not necessarily those which...benefactors regard as priorities." "SHOs....suffer from factionalism.....sometimes corrupt leadership....lack of solidarity."

Eight steps in self-help promotion are given; identification of target group and proposed activities; education and mutual training; resource mobilisation; management consultancy; linkage building; replication; monitoring and evaluation.

The Thai study concluded that "self-help promotion that does not take into account the binding and motivating force of Buddhism (or whatever the local religion/philosophy is) is one sided and likely to be ineffective."

Verhagen concludes "Culture, including the religious dimension, seems to be the keyword in filling the gap between the technocrat's vision of reality and people's aspirations for positive changes."

WARD Colin

Bedford Square Press 1990

Genx *

THE CHILD IN THE CITY (New Edition)

The issues over children are basically the same as other community development issues in the Third World or Britain - are we enabling them; are we providing what they need or what we think they should have, or neglecting them completely? Just about everything that would help children would benefit the whole community, just like access for people with disabilities. Ward is concerned not just with the physical fabric of the city and how children use it, but how they learn from it; he then goes on to education itself, again an important component in community development. In charting the decline in how the city gives to children Ward does not look to a past golden age, but recognises past evils, and seeks what is appropriate for today.

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